Observations of electric fields, Maxwell current density, and air conductivity over thunderstorms were presented. The measurements were obtained using electric field mils and conductivity probes installed on a U2 aircraft as the aircraft passed approximately directly over an active thunderstorm at an altitude of 18 to 20 km. Accurate electrical observations of this type are rare and provide important information to those involved in numerically modeling a thunderstorm. A preliminary set of computer simulations based on this data were conducted and are described. The simulations show good agreement with measurements and are used to infer the thundercloud's charging current and amount of charge exchanged per flash.